This is a version of chapter 4 (Quick Start Examples) of the new Manual, briefly describes the DDLab graphical use interface, and gives a number of examples of DDLab functions. Try these examples first, to get the flavor of DDLab, before reading the detailed program reference (chapters 4-35).

When DDLab is run with no program parameters, the screen appears with a
black background. The program parameter **-w** gives a white
background, i.e. enter **ddlab -w**. Descriptions of colors in this
manual assume a white background.
A title bar is displayed
across the bottom of the screen. A series of prompts are presented to
set up the network, functions to be performed, presentation. These
prompts appear either in a main sequence for the most common settings,
or in various windows that automatically open up.

The mouse cursor (if detected) is used to set bits in rule-tables and network states, for ``drawing'' bit patterns in 2d networks, for dragging nodes in the network graph and meta-graph, and for some other functions, but most user inputs are from the keyboard.

To revise the input, press **q**, **backspace**, or right mouse
button.

To accept the input, and move on to the next prompt or routine, press
**return** or left mouse button. If no input was entered, or if
the input was inappropriate, a default input is automatically selected.

You can backtrack to any stage in the prompt sequence with **q**
(or right mouse button), eventually to exit the program.

In DOS, the background can be changed between black and white, and the resolution between 640x480, 800x600, and 1024x768 pixels, given the necessary monitor, graphics card and driver.

The DDLab screen will start up at a resolution of 640x480 (VGA) with
a black background, if no program parameters are set. Program
parameters may be added for SVGA as follows: **-h** (for high,
1024x768) and **-m** (for medium, 800x600), i.e. for
high resolution start DDLab by entering **ddlabx23 -h** at the DOS
prompt. For a white background enter **ddlabx23 -w**, or
**ddlabx23 -h -w** for both high resolution and a white background.

To change the resolution or background after DDLab has started,
at the first prompt select **g** for
graphics. A graphics setup screen will appear.
Enter **b** to toggle the background.
Other options allow changing the resolution, font size
and text line spacing and cursor flash speed.

To change the background after DDLab has started, at the first
prompt select **g** for graphics. A
graphics setup screen will appear. Enter **b** to
toggle the background. Other options allow changing the resolution,
font size and text line spacing and cursor flash speed.
The screen can also be resized with the mouse in the usual way.

- A new prompt window appears top right. Enter
**return**. - The basin of attraction field will be generated for a 1d
3-neighbor CA rule,
*n*=10. The rule (chosen at random by default) appears in a window at bottom of the screen. A top right window shows brief data on the field once it is generated. A progress bar below this window shows the proportion of state-space as it is used up. Vertical lines on this bar indicate the states used to seed the basins. - A prompt window appears top left. Enter
**return**. - Another basin of attraction field is generated, a one bit ``mutant'' of the previous rule, with corresponding data. This process can continue indefinitely (it can be set on automatic).
- Enter
**q**to interrupt and backtrack up the prompt sequence. - Try this routine again with an increased network size
*n*and neighborhood size*k*. At the prompt**Network size (length) max 31, default 10:**enter 14 (for example). - At the second prompt after that
**Neighborhood size k: mixed-m, or enter 1-13 (def 3):**enter 5. - Then repeat the steps as above. The basins of attraction will take longer to generate. Their scale and position can be fine-tuned with the special options that were skipped.

- Enter
**s**to toggle the ``backwards'' space-time pattern on-off, and see predecessors (pre-images) being generated on the left of the screen as a space-time pattern. Initially the attractor states will be displayed, then each state (black) and its set of pre-images (red). Expand or contract the scale of the space-time pattern with**e**and**e**. Toggle scrolling with**#**. - Enter
**m**to toggle the display of the state-space matrix in the lower right corner. This reveals interesting symmetries. Different colors represent states in different basins. - Enter
**q**to interrupt and backtrack up the prompt sequence.

- At the second prompt,
**range of network size-r, else-ret:**enter**r**. - Enter
**return**until the top center**output parameters**banner appears, then**a**to restore all defaults, then**d**to skip further special options. - Enter
**return**to start a*range*of CA basin of attraction fields (with the same rule), for increasing sizes from 5 to 12. - Enter
**return**for the next ``mutant'' CA rule. - Toggle the display of ``backwards'' space-time patterns and the state-space matrix previously.
- Enter
**q**to interrupt and backtrack up the prompt sequence.

- At the very first prompt
**forward only/single basin/subtree-s (default field):**enter**s**. - At the
**Neighborhood size...**prompt enter 4. - Enter
**return**until the top center**output parameters**banner appears, then**a**to restore all defaults, then**d**to skip further special options. - Enter
**return**in response to further prompts in top right windows. - A singe basin for a CA, size 14, is generated.
- Enter
**return**for the next mutant. - Toggle the display of the ``backwards'' space-time patterns with
**s**and the state-space matrix with**m**previously. - Enter
**q**to interrupt and backtrack up the prompt sequence.

Backtrack with **q** (or right mouse button) to the start of the
program.

- At the very first prompt
**forward only/single basin/subtree-s (default field):**enter**s**. - Enter
**return**in response to further prompts until the**Network size...**prompt, select 25. - At the
**Neighborhood size...**prompt, select 5. - Enter
**return**in response to further prompts until the**Select SEED...**window appears. Enter**r**for a "random seed"**a**to set*all*cells at random. - Enter
**return**until the top center**output parameters**banner appears, then**a**to restore all defaults, then**a**to skip further special options. - At the prompt
**backward for subtree-b, forward for basin (def):**select**b**. - At the next prompt
**forwards before backwards?**

**how many steps (default 0, max 4096):**select 2. - Enter
**return**in response to further prompts in top right windows. The subtree is generated with its "root" state highlighted as a bit pattern. To generate a bigger sub-tree, enter a greater number of forward time-steps at the previous prompt. However, this might reach an attractor state. In this case the whole basin will be generated with the message**subtree=basin**in the top right data window. If this is taking too long, enter**q**to interrupt and backtrack to reduce the number of forward time-steps. - Enter
**return**for the next mutant. - While the subtree is being generated,
toggle the display of "backwards" space-time patterns with
**s**and the state-space matrix**m**as described previously. - Enter
**q**to interrupt and backtrack up the prompt sequence.

Backtrack with **q** (or right mouse button) to the
start of the program.

- At the very first prompt
**forward only/single basin/subtree-s (default field):**enter**s**. - At the
**enter cell scale in pixels...**prompt, select 1, the smallest scale. - At the
**Network size...**prompt, select 150. - At the
**Neighborhood size...**prompt, select 5. - Enter
**return**until the top center**output parameters**banner appears, then enter**s**for**space-time pattern only**. - At the next prompt,
**FORWARDS ONLY options:...**, the top center**accept defaults-d**banner appears, enter**d**to skip yet more special options.The space-time pattern is generated from the top down, on the left of the screen. To the right is a histogram of the lookup frequency relating to a window of 10 time-steps, and a plot of the entropy of this histogram, the input-entropy. An

**on-the-fly key index**on the right of the screen gives a list of key presses to change settings on-the-fly. Try the following key presses to see what happens.**#**to scroll the space-time pattern.**g**to change the rule to different ``complex'' rule.**u**to toggle the input-entropy - density plot.**4**for a new random initial state.**f**to progressively ``filter'' the space-time pattern, and**a**to restore the unfiltered pattern.**e**and**c**to expand and contract the scale of the space-time pattern.

- Try other key presses to change the rule, seed, color, analysis, size, updating, frozen cells, dimension, etc.
- To show the 1d CA according to the "network graph" (circle layout),
enter
**q**to show the top right interupt prompts, one of which is**tog graph-g**. Enter**g**to show the network graph with the default circle layout, then**q**to return to normal space-time patterns. The CA will be simultaneously displayed in network graph layout as in example**(a)**. - Enter
**q**to interrupt and backtrack up the prompt sequence.

Backtrack with **q** (or right mouse button) to the
start of the program.

- At the very first prompt
**forward only/single basin/subtree-s (default field):**enter**s**. - Enter
**return**until a top right**WIRING**prompt window appears,**WIRING: special-s load-l random-r**

**regular: 3d-3 2d-2 1d-def:**select 2 for regular 2-d wiring. - Enter
**return**until the top right prompt,**2d, enter width (def-40):**set, say, 56x56. For a slow computer accept the default 40x40.depth (def 40): - At the next top right prompt,
**Neighborhood size k: mixed-m, or enter 1-13 (def 3):**enter 9. - Enter
**return**until the main sequence prompt for rule selection appears,**Select k9-rule, empty-e fill-f maj-m Alt-a life-L chain-c rand-r**

**bits-b hex-h repeat-p load-l (def-rand):**select**L**for the "game-of-Life". - Enter
**return**until the**seed**prompt appears.**Select SEED (2d ij=56,56), empty-e fill-f rand-r**

**bits2d-b hex-h repeat-p load-l (def-r):**enter**return**for a random block.**e**to "empty" all cells to zero, then**l**to load a seed, then enter the file name "pento" at the**LOAD SEED...**prompt. This is the "r-pentomino" pattern that guarantees gliders. - Enter
**return**until the top center**output parameters**banner appears, then enter**s**for**space-time pattern only**. - At the next prompt,
**FORWARDS ONLY options:...**, a top center**accept defaults-d**banner appears, enter**d**to skip yet more special options.The 2d space-time pattern is generated in the top left hand corner of the screen. The

**on-the-fly key index**on the right of the screen gives a list of key presses to change settings on-the-fly. Try the following to see what happens.**t**to toggle between the 2d display and a 3d isometric projection (imagine looking up at a transparent shaft).**k**for a new random central block.**4**for a fully random seed.**e**and**c**to expand and contract the scale of the space-time pattern.**3**to toggle between cells colored according to rule-table lookup (the default) or by value.

- Try other key presses to change the seed, frozen cells, dimension, updating, rule, etc.
- Enter
**q**to interrupt and backtrack up the prompt sequence.

Backtrack with **q** (or right mouse button) to the start
of the program.

- At the very first prompt
**forward only/single basin/subtree-s (default field):**enter**s**. - Enter
**return**until a top right**WIRING**prompt window appears,**WIRING: special-s load-l random-r**

**regular: 3d-3 2d-2 1d-def:**select 2 for regular 2-d wiring. - Enter
**return**until the top right prompt,**2d, enter width (def-40):**enter 240x240, or a smaller size for a slow computer.depth (def 40): - At the next top right prompt,
**Neighborhood size k: mixed-m, or enter 1-13 (def 3):**enter 7.This results in a triangular 2d array, where each cell has 6 nearest neighbors. Although shown orthogonally the underlying grid is effectively triangular.

- At the totalistic rule-t prompt in the main sequence of prompts,
enter
**t**. - At the next prompt in the top right window enter
**return**. - Enter
**return**until the main sequence prompt appears for selecting the rule as a totalistic code,**Select k7 totalistic code (def-dec)**

**maj-m rand-r bits-b hex-h repeat-p:**select**b**.**(a)**and**(b)**enter (a) 11110000, or (b) and 11101000. - Enter
**return**until the**seed**prompt appears,**Select SEED (2d ij=240,240), empty-e fill-f rand-r**

**bits2d-b hex-h repeat-p load-l (def-r):**

select**r**for a random seed, then**a**for "all" the network, as opposed to a central block. - Enter
**return**until the top center**output parameters**banner appears, then enter**s**for**space-time pattern only**. - At the next prompt,
**FORWARDS ONLY options:...**, a top center**accept defaults-d**banner appears, enter**d**to skip yet more special options.The 2d space-time pattern is generated in the top left hand corner of the screen. The

**on-the-fly key index**on the right of the screen gives a list of key presses to change settings on-the-fly. Try the following to see what happens.**4**for a new random seed.**e**and**c**to expand and contract the scale of the space-time pattern.**3**to toggle between cells colored according to rule-table lookup (the default) or by value.

- Try other key presses to change the updating, frozen cells, dimension, rule, etc.
- Enter
**q**to interrupt and backtrack up the prompt sequence.

Backtrack with **q** (or right mouse button) to the
start of the program.

- At the very first prompt
**forward only/single basin/subtree-s (default field):**enter**s**. - Enter
**return**until a top right**WIRING**prompt window appears,**WIRING: special-s load-l random-r**

**regular: 3d-3 2d-2 1d-def:**select**3**for regular 3d wiring. - Enter
**return**until the top right prompt, to sets the size of the 3d lattice,

**3d, enter width (def-9):**enter the width depth and height. The maximum cube would be 40x40x40. The array has 3-torus boundary conditions.depth (def 9): height (def 9): - At the next top right prompt,
**Neighborhood size k: mixed-m, or enter 1-13 (def 3):**enter 7. The neighborhood is arranged as a 3d cross. - Enter
**return**until the main sequence prompt appears for rule selection appears,**Select k7-rule, empty-e fill-f maj-m Alt-a life-L chain-c rand-r**

**bits-b hex-h repeat-p load-l (def-rand):**enter**return**for a random rule. - Enter
**return**(to accept defaults including the seed) until the top center**output parameters**banner appears, then enter**s**for**space-time pattern only**. - At the next prompt,
**FORWARDS ONLY options:...**, a top center**accept defaults-d**banner appears, enter**d**to skip yet more special options.The 3d space-time pattern is generated in the top left of the screen. An

**on-the-fly key index**on the right of the screen gives a list of key presses to change settings on-the-fly. Try the following to see what happens.**5**for a new "singleton" seed, a single central 1, or**k**for a new random central 3d block.**r**for a new random rule.**e**and**c**to expand and contract the scale of the space-time pattern.**3**to toggle between cells colored according to rule-table lookup (the default) or by value.

- Try other key presses to change the updating, frozen cells, dimension, etc.
- Enter
**q**to interrupt and backtrack up the prompt sequence.

The ``screen-saver'' demo provides a continuous show of attractor basins
``boiling'' on the screen.
Backtrack with **q** (or right mouse button) to the
start of the program.

- At the very first prompt
**forward only/single basin/subtree-s (default field):**enter**s**. - At the
**Network size...**prompt, select 12. (for a faster computer select 14). - At the
**Neighborhood size...**prompt, select 4. - Enter
**return**until the top center output parameters banner appears, then**a**to restore all defaults, then**return**until the**savescreen demo -s**prompt; enter**s**to accept the option. - Then enter
**d**twice (or**return**) to accept all further defaults. The demo will start. The rule picked at random will be shown in the bottom rule-window. - While the demo is in progress,
toggle the display of the ``backwards'' space-time pattern with
key
**s**, and the state-space matrix with key**m**as described in section ``Backwards'' space-time patterns, and state-space matrix. - Enter
**q**to interrupt and backtrack up the prompt sequence.

Until now, the Quick Start Examples have described
cellular automata, which have a homogeneous *local wiring
template* and a single *rule* throughout the network. A random Boolean
network (RBN) departs from
CA network architecture (the default in DDLab) by allowing each
cell in the network to have different nonlocal *wiring*,
a different *rule*, and different *k* (the number of inputs), or
any combination of the above.
The network can be assigned a *wiring-scheme*, *rule-scheme* and
*k-*mix in a variety of ways, including randomly (with or without
biases).

- just a
**wiring-scheme**may be set, the*rule*and*k*remain homogeneous, as in CA, by default.

- just a
**rule-scheme**may be set, the*local wiring template*and*k*remain homogeneous, as in CA, by default. - both a
**wiring-scheme**and**rule-scheme**may be set,**k**remains homogeneous by default. This is what is usually understood as a ``random Boolean network''. - a
may be set, which implies a both*k*-mix*wiring-scheme*and*rule-scheme*, but the*wiring-scheme*remains*local*by default. - a network with a
, a non-local*k*-mix**wiring-scheme**and a**rule-scheme**may be set.

To generate attractor basins and space-time patterns for RBN, or any combination of parameters listed above, the preceding examples in sections Basin of attraction fields to "Screen-saver" demo can be adapted as described below.

Note that because running RBN backwards imposes a greater computational
load than for CA,
when generating attractor basins for RBN, both *n* and *k*
should be kept small, and 2d or 3d networks should be avoided.

- For a random
**wiring-scheme**in 1d: At the first top right prompt,**WIRING: special-s load-l random-r**

**regular: 3d-3 2d-2 1d-def:**select**r**. - For a random
**wiring-scheme**in 2d or 3d: At the first top right prompt,**WIRING: special-s load-l random-r**

**regular: 3d-3 2d-2 1d-def:**select**s**.**3d-3 2d-2 1d-def:**select**2**or**3**.

At the next top right prompt,**hand wire-h,**

**regular: 3d-3 2d-2 1d-1, random-def:**enter**return**. - For a random
**rule-scheme**, at the top right prompt,**RULES: single rule (def), load rule mix-l**

**mix: no limit-n, or set limit up to 200: regular:**enter**n**. - For a random
for a 1d network, at the main sequence prompt,*k*-mix

**Neighborhood size k: mixed-m, or enter 1-13 (def 3):**enter**m**.

Various further options to bias the*k*-mix are presented. If in doubt enter**return**. - To examine the resulting network in detail,
at the the top right prompt (or similar),
**1d network (n=150),review/revise/learn, wiring and rules**

**graph-g, matrix: revise-m view-M**

**graphic: 1d+timestep-1 circle-c, 2d-2:**Enter

**1**,**c**,**2**or**3**to review the network as a wiring graphic, using the arrow keys to examine the wiring and rules for chosen elements in the network. For 3d networks, the square bracket keys**[**and**]**move up and down in the 3d volume.Enter

**m**or**M**to review the network as a wiring matrix.Enter

**g**to review the network as a graph, which can be rearanged by dragging nodes with the mouse.These options are also available for CA.

back to the start

back to the*DDLab*home page

Last modified: July 2001